Glosario de palabras relacionadas con guitarras.

Detail from a guitar made by John Ray johnguitar.com

head - cabeza/pala 

machine heads/tuners - clavijeros 

strings - cuerdas 

neck - mástil 

heel - tacón 

top/table - tapa 

fretboard - diapasón/trastiera 

frets - trastes 

nut - hueso superior 

saddle - hueso del puente 

bridge - puente 

rosette - boca/boquilla 

soundhole - boca 

mosaic - mosaico 

binding - cenefas 

purfling - filetes/fileteado 

back - fondo 

sides/ribs - aros 

cedar - cedro 

cypress - ciprés 

rosewood - palosanto/palisandro 

spruce - abeto 

ebony - ébano 

mahogany - caoba 

maple - arce

varnish - barniz 

french polish - goma laca 

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Here are some books about Guitarmaking available at Amazon.com
Guitarmaking : Tradition and Technology : A Complete Reference for the Design & Construction of the Steel-String Folk Guitar & the Classical Guitar
Constructing a Solid Body Guitar : A Complete Technical Guide
The Guitar Maker's Manual; Jim Williams
Guitar Electronics for Musicians; Donald Brosnac
Guitar Player Repair Guide : How to Set-Up, Maintain, and Repair Electrics and Acoustics; Dan Erlewine
The Art of Inlay : Contemporary Design & Technique; Larry Robinson